Observation and forecasting services

Weather Observation is a way of examining the state of atmosphere of the earth and its underlying surface in a particular area at a particular time of the day by using instruments and eyes within a given short period of time.

Where as Weather forecasting is predicting what the weather will be like at a certain time in the near future, in a given location or it is a statement saying what the weather will be like the next day or for the next few days.

Observation and forecasting services

The Department of Climate Change and Meteorological Services provide the observation service order to meet the Nation manandate as well as filifling the folowing Objectives;-

  • The Global Observing System requirements
  • The Global Telecommunication System requirements (GTS)
  • The Global data processing and climate forecasting system
  • Operational Meteorological Data and information requirements

Global Observing System (GOS)

GOS Is the coordinated system of methods and facilities for making meteorological observations on a global scale in support of all WMO Programmes; the system is comprised of operationally reliable surface-based and space-based subsystems? The GOS comprises observing facilities on land, at sea, in the air and in outer space. These facilities are owned and operated by the Member countries of WMO each of which undertakes to meet certain responsibilities in the agreed global scheme so that all countries can benefit from the consolidated efforts

Weather Parameters Observed at a Weather Station;

  • Rainfall
  • Temperature
  • Wind Direction and Speed
  • Atmospheric Pressure
  • Evaporation
  • Cloud Cover and Cloud types
  • Sunshine
  • Radiation
  • Present and Past Weather etc

Forecasting services

Weather forecasting starts with weather monitoring which is critical in understanding the current situation in terms of weather. This is then followed by Weather Analysis and prediction. Weather Analysis tries to understand what weather systems are contributing to the current weather conditions and predicting what is going to be. Finally, all the weather information generated must be disseminated.


The department of climate changes and meteorological issues severe weather warning for related hazardous weather conditions.
Figure 1: Local COSMO model for Short range forecasts as a tool for weather analysis and prediction

Figure 2: Meteograms for location specific medium range forecasts

There are several types of forecasts depending on validity time. These are:

  • Now casting ; forecast for 1 to 3 hours
  • Short range forecasts ; forecasts for 1 to three days
  • Medium range forecast: for 3 to 10 days
  • Long range forecasts; up to 6 months
  • Climate projections; future long term weather conditions for years to come

  • Severe weather warning
  • Daily forecast bulletins
  • Terminal aerodrome forecasts
  • Five day weather forecasts
  • Agro-meteorological bulletin
  • Seasonal forecasts
  • Tailor made forecast products for private sector on request